This he promoted through various publications, and through the Hubbard Dianetic Research Foundation, which he established in 1950. [62][78], Some practitioners of Dianetics reported experiences which they believed had occurred in past lives, or previous incarnations. [141] To avoid this fate is Scientology's basic goal. [468] In 1934, philosopher Anastasius Nordenholz published Scientology: Science of the Constitution and Usefulness of Knowledge, which used the term to mean the science of science. 203–204. [92][93], L. Ron Hubbard originally intended for Scientology to be considered a science, as stated in his writings. [430], The Church of Scientology denounces the idea of Hubbard starting a religion for personal gain as an unfounded rumor. Scientology is a confused concoction of crackpot, dangerously applied psychotherapy, oversimplified, idiotic and inapplicable rules and ideas and science-fiction drivel that is presented to its members (at the "advanced" levels) as profound spiritual truth. Aaron says one staff member used a coat hanger and self-aborted her child for fear of punishment," said Senator Xenophon. It does not have the extreme violence associated with "dangerous cults." Hubbard then incorporated the Church of Scientology in 1953. The Harm it Does to a Person [102], The Scientology organization experienced further challenges. [25][26] Individuals or groups who are "Fair Game" are judged to be a threat to the Church and, according to the policy, can be punished and harassed using any and all means possible. [409] As a rule, the great majority of members proceeds up the bridge in a steady rate commensurate with their income. (Hubbard 1983: 55)."[95]. . In fact, a search for “Xenu” within the Scientology Newsroom website yields no results. [478], Paul Thomas Anderson's 2012 film The Master features a religious organization called "The Cause" that has many similarities to Scientology. Born out of this desire to help are the many social betterment activities Scientology supports. [229] The Association for Better Living and Education (ABLE) acts as an umbrella organization for these efforts. [482], In April 2015, following the recent release of Going Clear: Scientology and the Prison of Belief, Saturday Night Live aired a music video featuring the "Church of Neurotology", a parody of Scientology's 1990 music video "We Stand Tall". Winter. [264] Among these documents was a plan to frame Gabe Cazares, the mayor of Clearwater, Florida, with a staged hit-and-run accident. [143] David V. Barrett, a sociologist of religion who has written widely about the subject, says that according to Scientology, the "first major goal is to go Clear." Los Angeles, California: Bridge Publications, 2007: 3. [326] Subsequently, the group Anonymous voiced its criticism of Scientology and began attacking the Church. [362] In 1991, Miscavige, the highest-ranking Scientology leader, arranged a meeting with Fred T. Goldberg Jr., the Commissioner of the Internal Revenue Service at the time. [307], In the 1990s, Miscavige's organization took action against increased criticism of Scientology on the Internet and online distribution of Scientology-related documents. [88][89][90] In December 1952, the Hubbard Dianetic Foundation filed for bankruptcy, and Hubbard lost control of the Dianetics trademark and copyrights to financier Don Purcell. The Thetan has had innumerable past lives and it is observed in advanced (and – within the movement – secret) Scientology texts that lives preceding the Thetan's arrival on Earth were lived in extraterrestrial cultures. [445] Hubbard asserted that Freudian thought was a "major precursor" to Scientology. Your information will only be used for the purpose of administering this personality test and evaluation. [392][393] The letter was signed by Dustin Hoffman, Goldie Hawn and a number of other Hollywood celebrities and executives. [328][329][330][331][332] On January 21, 2008, Anonymous announced its intentions via a video posted to YouTube entitled "Message to Scientology", and a press release declaring a "war" against the Church of Scientology and the Religious Technology Center. Judgement of Mr Justice Latey, Re: B & G (Minors) (Custody) Delivered in the High Court Clearing was described to represent "the attainment of Man's dreams through the ages of attaining a new and higher state of existence and freedom from the endless cycle of birth, death, birth … Clear is the total erasure of the reactive mind from which stems all the anxieties and problems the individual has". [338][339] "[362] In August 1993, a settlement was reached; the organization would receive its tax-exempt status and end its legal actions against the IRS and its personnel. [341], The legal status of Scientology or Scientology-related organizations differs between jurisdictions. [123] On November 11, 1982, the Free Zone was established by top Scientologists in disagreement with RTC. [184] These can take the form of overts – harmful acts against another, either intentionally or by omission – which are usually followed by withholds – efforts to conceal the wrongdoing, which further increase the level of tension in the relationship. Scientology doctrine states that any Scientologist undergoing auditing will eventually come across and recount a common series of events. [472] The upper triangle is the KRC triangle, the letters KRC positing a similar relationship between Knowledge, Responsibility and Control. The book is used as a textbook for art courses in Scientology. [214], Journalist John Sweeney reported that "While making our BBC Panorama film Scientology and Me I have been shouted at, spied on, had my hotel invaded at midnight, denounced as a 'bigot' by star Scientologists, brain-washed—that is how it felt to me—in a mock up of a Nazi-style torture chamber and chased round the streets of Los Angeles by sinister strangers". (Family Division), London, July 23, 1984, "Recognition was based upon voluminous information provided by the Church regarding its financial and other operations to the Internal Revenue Service." [341][342] The committee concluded that both sides had "gamed policy" and resorted to "battlefield tactics", with articles on living persons being the "worst casualties". [138][143], Thetans are reborn time and time again in new bodies through a process called "assumption", which is analogous to reincarnation. Errors are made based on erroneous data and is not the error of the analytical mind. 'Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health'. [118] Capt. [110], In 1972, facing criminal charges in France, Hubbard returned to the United States and began living in an apartment in Queens, New York. [406], The Church of Scientology and its many related organizations have amassed considerable real estate holdings worldwide, likely in the hundreds of millions of dollars. [173] He adds that on whatever level Scientologists might have received this mythology, they seem to have found it useful in their spiritual quest. Scientology does not preach or impose a particular idea of God on Scientologists. [173] Hubbard described these early events collectively as "space opera". ", "Anonymous hackers vow to "dismantle" Scientology", "The group Anonymous calls for protests outside Scientology centers – New on the Net", "Anonymous names 10 February as its day of action against Scientology", "Organizers Tout Scientology Protest, Plan Another", "Scientology protestors take action around world", "Dozens of masked protesters blast Scientology church", "Second round of Anonymous v Scientology", "Scientology Marriage Officers Approved in South Africa", "Decision of March 13, 2000 registering Scientology as a "religious community" in Sweden", "Opinion of the New Zealand Inland Revenue Department on the Charitable Status of Scientology", "2007 U.S. Department of State – 2007 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Portugal", "La Audiencia Nacional reconoce a la Cienciología como iglesia", "The Church of Scientology: In Pursuit of Legal Recognition", "Scientology suit on PR firm heads for trial", "Researching Scientology: Academic Premises, Promises, and Problematic", "The Religious Status of Scientology: Is Scientology a Religion? These beliefs are based on written words by L. Ron Hubbard.A few other people have added, but almost all of it is his. Scientology is probably one of the most successful new American faiths to have emerged in the past century. Many further protests have followed since then in cities around the world. This site uses cookies to help improve your online experience. [98], In December 1953, Hubbard incorporated three Church of Scientology organizations – a "Church of American Science", a "Church of Scientology" and a "Church of Spiritual Engineering" – in Camden, New Jersey. [56][57] The Scientology organization says that Hubbard's experience with hypnosis led him to create Dianetics. In 1952, Hubbard published a book (What to Audit / A History of Man[439]) on space opera and other material that may be encountered when auditing preclears. Hubbard initially developed a set of ideas which he represented as a form of therapy, called Dianetics. He started it in 1954. "[197] Hugh B. The Church developed outreach programs to fight drug addiction, illiteracy, learning disabilities and criminal behavior. [184][185] Scientology disconnection policy prohibits most contact with Suppressive Persons. Hubbard said, "Implants result in all varieties of illness, apathy, degradation, neurosis and insanity and are the principal cause of these in man. Sociologists Roy Wallis and Steve Bruce suggest that Dianetics, which set each person as his or her own authority, was about to fail due to its inherent individualism, and that Hubbard started Scientology as a religion to establish himself as the overarching authority. [179] Washington Post reporter Richard Leiby wrote, "Former Scientologists familiar with Hubbard's teachings on reincarnation say the symbol marks a 'return point' so loyal staff members know where they can find the founder's works when they travel here in the future from other places in the universe. The initial episode drew 2.1 million viewers. [99] On February 18, 1954, with Hubbard's blessing, some of his followers set up the first local Church of Scientology, the Church of Scientology of California, adopting the "aims, purposes, principles and creed of the Church of American Science, as founded by L. Ron Hubbard". [165][166][167] Psychiatry rejected Hubbard's theories in the early 1950s and in 1951, Hubbard's wife Sara consulted doctors who recommended he "be committed to a private sanatorium for psychiatric observation and treatment of a mental ailment known as paranoid schizophrenia". [171] According to the official Church of Scientology website, "the effects of medical and psychiatric drugs, whether painkillers, tranquilizers or 'antidepressants', are as disastrous" as illegal drugs. However, the issuance of the message led to a great deal of public criticism by free-speech advocates. The Church of Scientology maintains a wide variety of beliefs and practices. "[306], A number of women have sued the Church of Scientology, alleging a variety of complaints including human trafficking, rape, forced labor, and child abuse. [62] He became a popular lecturer and established the Hubbard Dianetic Research Foundation in Elizabeth, New Jersey, where he trained his first Dianetics counselors or auditors. [411], Describing the available scholarship on Scientology, David G. Bromley and Douglas E. Cowan stated in 2006 that "most scholars have concluded that Scientology falls within the category of religion for the purposes of academic study, and a number have defended the Church [sic] in judicial and political proceedings on this basis. In 1978, a number of Scientologists, including L. Ron Hubbard's wife Mary Sue Hubbard (who was second in command in the organization at the time), were convicted of perpetrating what was at the time the largest incident of domestic espionage in the history of the United States, called "Operation Snow White". [49] Arthur J. Burks, who read the work in 1938, later recalled it discussed the "one command": to survive. Former members have made a number of disturbing references to conditions within the church; the church agrees with some of … [278] Former members report having participated in combing through information obtained in auditing sessions to see if it could be used for smear campaigns against critics. [288][289] Former Sea Org member Karen Pressley recounted that she was often asked by fellow Scientologists for loans so that they could get an abortion and remain in the Sea Org. [66][67] Hubbard variously defined Dianetics as a spiritual healing technology and an organized science of thought. Hubbard spent three semesters at George Washington University (in Washington, D.C.), but was placed on probation in September 1931. [210][211][212] It has targeted critics of the Church for "dead agent" operations, which is mounting character assassination operations against perceived enemies. This mainly happened when he had to deal with apparent memories from former lives. As with all its tenets, Scientology does not ask individuals to accept anything on faith alone. [170], Hubbard taught that psychiatrists were responsible for a great many wrongs in the world, saying that psychiatry has at various times offered itself as a tool of political suppression and "that psychiatry spawned the ideology which fired Hitler's mania, turned the Nazis into mass murderers, and created the Holocaust". [447] Hubbard never forgot, when he was 12 years old, meeting Cmdr. According to this story, 75 million years ago Xenu brought billions of people to Earth in spacecraft resembling Douglas DC-8 airliners, stacked them around volcanoes and detonated hydrogen bombs in the volcanoes. [313] The Church of Scientology was forced to issue a press release acknowledging the existence of this cosmogony, rather than allow its critics "to distort and misuse this information for their own purposes". [442], The general orientation of Hubbard's philosophy owes much to Will Durant, author of the popular 1926 classic The Story of Philosophy; Dianetics is dedicated to Durant. In my opinion, we couldn't get worse public opinion than we have had or have less customers with what we've got to sell. [190] A minority of governments regard it as a religious organization entitled to tax-exempt status, while other governments variously classify it as a business, cult, pseudoreligion, or criminal organization. [221] The Flag Service Organization in Clearwater, Florida offers OT levels VI and VII. They really would have preferred the rest of us not to know about Xenu and the galactic federation. [447], As noted, elements of the Eastern religions are evident in Scientology,[449] in particular the concept of karma found in Hinduism and Jainism. These have been presented to schools, businesses and communities as secular techniques based on Hubbard's writings. The officer involved in this particular case of surveillance and harassment was suspended for six months. [244][245] A considerable amount of investigation has been aimed at the organization, by groups ranging from the media to governmental agencies.[244][245]. [407] On that basis, it is likened to a pyramid selling scheme. Rather, people are expected to discover the truth through their own observations as their awareness advances. In the press release, the group stated that the attacks against the Church of Scientology would continue in order to protect the freedom of speech, and end what they saw as the financial exploitation of members of the organization. He had to defend himself about this to his friends. Urban, "seemed to be uniquely suited to the individualism and quick-fix mentality of 1950s America: just by doing a few assignments, "one can become a god". [299] He said that he had been told members of the organization had coerced pregnant female employees to have abortions. 2013. vol. [20], Scientology followers believe that a human is an immortal, spiritual being (Thetan) that is resident in a physical body. B023193, July 18, 1989, Hamburg Regional Office of the German Constitutional Security Agency. [207] Similarly, World Religions in America states that "Scientology contains the same elements of most other religions, including myths, scriptures, doctrines, worship, sacred practices and rituals, moral and ethical expectations, a community of believers, clergy, and ecclesiastic organizations. The foundation soon entered bankruptcy, and Hubbard lost the rights to his book Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health in 1952. [313], In January 1995, Church of Scientology lawyer Helena Kobrin attempted to shut down the newsgroup alt.religion.scientology by sending a control message instructing Usenet servers to delete the group. [103] The original suit by the FDA to condemn the literature and E-meters did not succeed,[104] but the court ordered the organization to label every meter with a disclaimer that it is purely religious artifact,[105] to post a $20,000 bond of compliance, and to pay the FDA's legal expenses. Hubbard experiments with traditional religious language in a short piece written in 1953 called "The Factors", "a basic expression of Scientologist cosmology and metaphysics", reprinted in current Scientology literature. [79] On January 4, 1963, FDA agents raided offices of the Church of Scientology, seizing hundreds of E-meters as illegal medical devices and tons of literature that they accused of making false medical claims. [362] Both the IRS and Scientology rejected any allegations that foul play or undue pressure had been used on IRS officials, insisting that the decision had been based on the merits of the case. [158][159] It features high-dose dietary supplements and extended time in a sauna (up to five hours a day for five weeks). [433] In 2006, Rolling Stone's Janet Reitman also attributed the statement to Hubbard, as a remark to science fiction writer Lloyd Eshbach and recorded in Eshbach's autobiography.[434]. [304] Underwood was the executive director of Scientology's branch in Sydney, Australia. ", "Juliette Lewis Explains Why Scientologists Can Celebrate Christmas", "Updated: Scientologists in Haiti: Volunteers or Vultures? [322], On January 14, 2008, a video produced by the Church of Scientology featuring an interview with Tom Cruise was leaked to the Internet and uploaded to YouTube. On January 24, 1986, L. Ron Hubbard died at his ranch in Creston, California. Intense debate within the Dianetics community auditing is a religion: he discovered that what he was reprimanded removed... 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